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Alendronate as Bioactive Coating on Titanium Surfaces: An Investigation of CaP–Alendronate Interactions

Despotović, Ines; Petrović, Željka; Katić, Jozefina; Mikić, Dajana (2024) Alendronate as Bioactive Coating on Titanium Surfaces: An Investigation of CaP–Alendronate Interactions. Materials, 17 (11). ISSN 1996-1944

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The surface modification of dental implants plays an important role in establishing a successful interaction of the implant with the surrounding tissue, as the bioactivity and osseointegration properties are strongly dependent on the physicochemical properties of the implant surface. A surface coating with bioactive molecules that stimulate the formation of a mineral calcium phosphate (CaP) layer has a positive effect on the bone bonding process, as biomineralization is crucial for improving the osseointegration process and rapid bone ingrowth. In this work, the spontaneous deposition of calcium phosphate on the titanium surface covered with chemically stable and covalently bound alendronate molecules was investigated using an integrated experimental and theoretical approach. The initial nucleation of CaP was investigated using quantum chemical calculations at the density functional theory (DFT) level. Negative Gibbs free energies show a spontaneous nucleation of CaP on the biomolecule-covered titanium oxide surface. The deposition of calcium and phosphate ions on the alendronate-modified titanium oxide surface is governed by Ca2+–phosphonate (-PO3H) interactions and supported by hydrogen bonding between the phosphate group of CaP and the amino group of the alendronate molecule. The morphological and structural properties of CaP deposit were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This integrated experimental–theoretical study highlights the spontaneous formation of CaP on the alendronatecoated titanium surface, confirming the bioactivity ability of the alendronate coating. The results provide valuable guidance for the promising forthcoming advancements in the development of biomaterials and surface modification of dental implants.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: titanium dental implant; alendronate coating; calcium phosphate CaP; bioactivity; DFT quantum chemical calculations
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Chemistry
NATURAL SCIENCES > Chemistry > Physical Chemistry
Divisions: Division of Materials Chemistry
Division of Physical Chemistry
Depositing User: Željka Petrović
Date Deposited: 12 Jun 2024 11:01
DOI: 10.3390/ma17112703

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