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Particle Size Modulates Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity during Embryogenesis of Urchins Arbacia lixula and Paracentrotus lividus

Burić, Petra; Čarapar, Ivana; Pavičić-Hamer, Dijana; Kovačić, Ines; Jurković, Lara; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Domazet Jurašin, Darija; Mikac, Nevenka; Bačić, Niko; Lyons, Daniel Mark (2023) Particle Size Modulates Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity during Embryogenesis of Urchins Arbacia lixula and Paracentrotus lividus. International journal of molecular sciences, 24 (1). ISSN 1422-0067

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Silver nanoparticles represent a threat to biota and have been shown to cause harm through a number of mechanisms, using a wide range of bioassay endpoints. While nanoparticle concentration has been primarily considered, comparison of studies that have used differently sized nanoparticles indicate that nanoparticle diameter may be an important factor that impacts negative outcomes. In considering this, the aim of the present study was to determine if different sizes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs ; 10, 20, 40, 60 and 100 nm) give rise to similar effects during embryogenesis of Mediterranean sea urchins Arbacia lixula and Paracentrotus lividus, or if nanoparticle size is a parameter that can modulate embryotoxicity and spermiotoxicity in these species. Fertilised embryos were exposed to a range of AgNP concentrations (1–1000 µg L−1) and after 48 h larvae were scored. Embryos exposed to 1 and 10 µg L−1 AgNPs (for all tested sizes) showed no negative effect in both sea urchins. The smaller AgNPs (size 10 and 20 nm) caused a decrease in the percentage of normally developed A. lixula larvae at concentrations ≥50 µg L−1 (EC50: 49 and 75 μg L−1, respectively) and at ≥100 µg L−1 (EC50: 67 and 91 μg L−1, respectively) for P. lividus. AgNPs of 40 nm diameter was less harmful in both species ((EC50: 322 and 486 μg L−1, for P. lividus and A. lixula, respectively)). The largest AgNPs (60 and 100 nm) showed a dose-dependent response, with little effect at lower concentrations, while more than 50% of larvae were developmentally delayed at the highest tested concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg L−1 (EC50(100 nm) ; 662 and 529 μg L−1, for P. lividus and A. lixula, respectively. While AgNPs showed no effect on the fertilisation success of treated sperm, an increase in offspring developmental defects and arrested development was observed in A. lixula larvae for 10 nm AgNPs at concentrations ≥50 μg L−1, and for 20 and 40 nm AgNPs at concentrations >100 μg L−1. Overall, toxicity was mostly ascribed to more rapid oxidative dissolution of smaller nanoparticles, although, in cases, Ag+ ion concentrations alone could not explain high toxicity, indicating a nanoparticle-size effect.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Dose-dependent ; Early life stage ; Embryonic development ; Exposure ; Kinetics ; Nanoparticle ; Silver ion
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Chemistry
NATURAL SCIENCES > Interdisciplinary Natural Sciences
Divisions: Center for Marine Research
Division for Marine and Enviromental Research
Division of Physical Chemistry
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
Određivanje fizikalno-kemijskih svojstava i toksičnosti nanočestica srebra, bakra i plastike kao potencijalno štetnih novih materijala u obalnim vodamaLyons, Daniel MarkIP-2018-01-5351HRZZ
Depositing User: Daniel Mark Lyons
Date Deposited: 14 Apr 2023 11:47
DOI: 10.3390/ijms24010745

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