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Photodynamic Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection by Tricationic Amphiphilic Porphyrin with a Long Alkyl Chain

Jurak, Igor; Cokarić Brdovčak, Maja; Djaković, Lara; Bertović, Ivana; Knežević, Klaudia; Lončarić, Martin; Jurak Begonja, Antonija; Malatesti, Nela (2023) Photodynamic Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection by Tricationic Amphiphilic Porphyrin with a Long Alkyl Chain. Pharmaceutics, 15 (3). ISSN 1999-4923

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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is broadly used to treat different tumors, and it is a rapidly developing approach to inactivating or inhibiting the replication of fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is an important human pathogen and a frequently used model to study the effects of PDT on enveloped viruses. Although many photosensitizers (PSs) have been tested for their antiviral properties, analyses are usually limited to assessing the reduction in viral yield, and thus the molecular mechanisms of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the antiviral properties of TMPyP3-C17H35, a tricationic amphiphilic porphyrin-based PS with a long alkyl chain. We show that light-activated TMPyP3-C17H35 can efficiently block virus replication at certain nM concentrations without exerting obvious cytotoxicity. Moreover, we show that the levels of viral proteins (immediate- early, early, and late genes) were greatly reduced in cells treated with subtoxic concentrations of TMPyP3-C17H35, resulting in markedly decreased viral replication. Interestingly, we observed a strong inhibitory effect of TMPyP3-C17H35 on the virus yield only when cells were treated before or shortly after infection. In addition to the antiviral activity of the internalized compound, we show that the compound dramatically reduces the infectivity of free virus in the supernatant. Overall, our results demonstrate that activated TMPyP3-C17H35 effectively inhibits HSV-1 replication and that it can be further developed as a potential novel treatment and used as a model to study photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: cationic amphiphilic porphyrin ; HSV-1 ; photodynamic therapy ; PACT
BIOTECHNICAL SCIENCES > Interdisciplinary Technical Sciences
Divisions: Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices
Depositing User: Martin Lončarić
Date Deposited: 12 Apr 2023 13:29
DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15030956

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