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Exposure to Polymethylmethacrylate Microplastics Induces a Particle Size-Dependent Immune Response in Mediterranean Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

Pavičić-Hamer, Dijana; Kovačić, Ines; Sović, Tamara; Marelja, Matea; Lyons, Daniel Mark (2022) Exposure to Polymethylmethacrylate Microplastics Induces a Particle Size-Dependent Immune Response in Mediterranean Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Fishes, 7 (6). ISSN 2410-3888

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The widespread occurrence of plastic has become a significant problem in the natural environment and may give rise to a range of deleterious impacts in biota, particularly where plastic particles overlap in size with that of the particles that are naturally ingested by filter-feeders. In this context, the effects of two particle sizes (10 μm and 50 μm) of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) on ecologically and commercially significant mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis have been investigated. Mussel health status was evaluated by measuring the condition index and stress-on-stress test during and after 72 h exposure to PMMA microparticles in the 0.1–10 mg L−1 concentration range. The decreased condition and fitness indices in the exposed mussels pointed to significant physiological effects at the entire organism level. The 10 μm and 50 μm PMMA particles were noted to rapidly increase the total haemocytes count in haemolymph, and significantly reduce cell viability at higher concentrations of both particle sizes. The results also indicated a significant increase in levels of vacuolised haemocytes as a result of PMMA exposure. While both microparticles were detected in the haemolymph, only the 10 μm PMMA was observed in the gill tissue and digestive gland by histological cryosections, indicating their rapid uptake, transport, and accumulation in tissue. Lack of accumulation of 50 μm microparticles in tissue may be related to a combination of chemical identity and size considerations, enabling more efficient depuration of microparticles in pseudofaeces. The PMMA particles did not induce significant changes in activity of a range of enzymes involved in neurotransmission and responses to oxidative stress.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: acetylcholinesterase ; condition index ; enzymatic activity ; haemocyte ; oxidative stress ; PMMA ; SOS test
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Chemistry
NATURAL SCIENCES > Interdisciplinary Natural Sciences
Divisions: Center for Marine Research
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
Određivanje fizikalno-kemijskih svojstava i toksičnosti nanočestica srebra, bakra i plastike kao potencijalno štetnih novih materijala u obalnim vodamaLyons, Daniel MarkIP-2018-01-5351HRZZ
Depositing User: Daniel Mark Lyons
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2023 10:25
DOI: 10.3390/fishes7060307

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