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The Human Milk Microbiota Produces Potential Therapeutic Biomolecules and Shapes the Intestinal Microbiota of Infants

Banić, Martina; Butorac, Katarina; Čuljak, Nina; Leboš Pavunc, Andreja; Novak, Jasna; Bellich, Barbara; Kazazić, Saša; Kazazić, Snježana; Cescutti, Paola; Šušković, Jagoda; Zucko, Jurica; Kos, Blaženka (2022) The Human Milk Microbiota Produces Potential Therapeutic Biomolecules and Shapes the Intestinal Microbiota of Infants. International journal of molecular sciences, 23 . ISSN 1422-0067

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Human milk not only provides a perfect balance of nutrients to meet all the needs of the infant in the first months of life but also contains a variety of bacteria that play a key role in tailoring the neonatal faecal microbiome. Microbiome analysis of human milk and infant faeces from mother-breastfed infant pairs was performed by sequencing the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. According to the results, there is a connection in the composition of the microbiome in each mother-breastfed infant pair, supporting the hypothesis that the infant’s gut is colonised with bacteria from human milk. MiSeq sequencing also revealed high biodiversity of the human milk microbiome and the infant faecal microbiome, whose composition changes during lactation and infant development, respectively. A total of 28 genetically distinct strains were selected by hierarchical cluster analysis of RAPD-PCR (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction) electrophoresis profiles of 100 strains isolated from human milk and identified by 16S RNA sequencing. Since certain cellular molecules may support their use as probiotics, the next focus was to detect (S)-layer proteins, bacteriocins and exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that have potential as therapeutic biomolecules. SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl-Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) coupled with LC-MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis revealed that four Levilactobacillus brevis strains expressed S-layer proteins, which were identified for the first time in strains isolated from human milk. The potential biosynthesis of plantaricin was detected in six Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strains by PCR analysis and in vitro antibacterial studies. 1H NMR (Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analysis confirmed EPS production in only one strain, Limosilactobacillus fermentum MC1. The overall microbiome analysis suggests that human milk contributes to the establishment of the intestinal microbiota of infants. In addition, it is a promising source of novel Lactobacillus strains expressing specific functional biomolecules.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: human milk microbiome ; infant intestinal microbiome ; S-layer proteins ; plantaricins ; exopolysaccharides
Subjects: BIOTECHNICAL SCIENCES > Biotechnology
Divisions: Division of Physical Chemistry
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
Potencijalne terapijske biomolekule druge generacije probiotikaKos, BlaženkaIP-2019-04-2237HRZZ
Depositing User: Saša Kazazić
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2023 10:10
DOI: 10.3390/ijms232214382

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