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Satellitome analyses in nematodes illuminate complex species history and show conserved features in satellite DNAs

Despot-Slade, Evelin; Širca, Saša; Mravinac, Brankica; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Plohl, Miroslav; Meštrović, Nevenka (2022) Satellitome analyses in nematodes illuminate complex species history and show conserved features in satellite DNAs. BMC Biology, 20 (1). ISSN 1741-7007

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Background: Satellite DNAs (satDNAs) are tandemly repeated non-coding DNA sequences that belong to the most abundant and the fastest evolving parts of the eukaryotic genome. A satellitome represents the collection of different satDNAs in a genome. Due to extreme diversity and methodological difficulties to characterize and compare satDNA collection in complex genomes, knowledge on their putative functional constraints and capacity to participate in genome evolution remains rather elusive. SatDNA transcripts have been detected in many species, however comparative studies of satDNA transcriptome between species are extremely rare. Results: We conducted a genome-wide survey and comparative analyses of satellitomes among different closely related Meloidogyne spp. nematodes. The evolutionary trends of satDNAs suggest that each round of proposed polyploidization in the evolutionary history is concomitant with the addition of a new set of satDNAs in the satellitome of any particular Meloidogyne species. Successive incorporation of new sets of satDNAs in the genome along the process of polyploidization supports multiple hybridization events as the main factor responsible for the formation of these species. Through comparative analyses of 83 distinct satDNAs, we found a CENP-B box-like sequence motif conserved among 11 divergent satDNAs (similarity ranges from 36 to 74%). We also found satDNAs that harbor a splice leader (SL) sequence which, in spite of overall divergence, shows conservation across species in two putative functional regions, the 25-nt SL exon and the Sm binding site. Intra- and interspecific comparative expression analyses of the complete satDNA set in the analyzed Meloidogyne species revealed transcription profiles including a subset of 14 actively transcribed satDNAs. Among those, 9 show active transcription in every species where they are found in the genome and throughout developmental stages. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the feasibility and power of comparative analysis of the non-coding repetitive genome for elucidation of the origin of species with a complex history. Although satDNAs generally evolve extremely quickly, the comparative analyses of 83 satDNAs detected in the analyzed Meloidogyne species revealed conserved sequence features in some satDNAs suggesting sequence evolution under selective pressure. SatDNAs that are actively transcribed in related genomes and throughout nematode development support the view that their expression is not stochastic.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Repetitive DNA ; Satellitomes ; Phylogenomics ; Conserved features ; Satellite DNA transcriptome ; Nematode
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Division of Molecular Biology
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
Razvoj genomskih markera za brzu identifikaciju parazitskih nematoda u svrhu učinkovitih mjera suzbijanjaMeštrović Radan, Nevenka31700031529Ostalo
Centromerna genomika beskralježnjakaPlohl, MiroslavIP-2014-09-3183HRZZ
Depositing User: Evelin Despot-Slade
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2023 08:16
DOI: 10.1186/s12915-022-01460-7

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