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Propolis extract and its bioactive compounds - from traditional to modern extraction technologies

Šuran, Jelena; Cepanec, Ivica; Mašek, Tomislav; Radić, Saša; Tlak Gajger, Ivana; Vlainić, Josipa (2021) Propolis extract and its bioactive compounds - from traditional to modern extraction technologies. Molecules, 26 (10). ISSN 1420-3049

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Propolis is a honeybee product known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial effects. It is rich in bioactive molecules whose content varies depending on the botanical and geographical origin of propolis. These bioactive molecules have been studied individually and as a part of propolis extracts, as they can be used as representative markers for propolis standardization. Here, we compare the pharmacological effects of representative polyphenols and whole propolis extracts. Based on the literature data, polyphenols and extracts act by suppressing similar targets, from pro-inflammatory TNF/NF-B to the pro- proliferative MAPK/ERK pathway. In addition, they activate similar antioxidant mechanisms of action, like Nrf2-ARE intracellular antioxidant pathway, and they all have antimicrobial activity. These similarities do not imply that we should attribute the action of propolis solely to the most representative compounds. Moreover, its pharmacological effects will depend on the efficacy of these compounds’ extraction. Thus, we also give an overview of different propolis extraction technologies, from traditional to modern ones, which are environmentally friendlier. These technologies belong to an open research area that needs further effective solutions in terms of well-standardized liquid and solid extracts, which would be reliable in their pharmacological effects, environmentally friendly, and sustainable for production.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: propolis ; polyphenols ; extraction
Subjects: BIOTECHNICAL SCIENCES > Biotechnology
INTERDISCIPLINARY AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE > Biotechnology in Biomedicine (natural science, biomedicine and healthcare, bioethics area
Divisions: Division of Molecular Medicine
Depositing User: Josipa Vlainić
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2022 14:28
DOI: 10.3390/molecules26102930

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