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Why monoamine oxidase B preferably metabolizes N-methylhistamine over histamine: evidence from the multiscale simulation of the rate-limiting step

Maršavelski, Aleksandra; Mavri, Janez; Vianello, Robert; Stare, Jernej (2022) Why monoamine oxidase B preferably metabolizes N-methylhistamine over histamine: evidence from the multiscale simulation of the rate-limiting step. International journal of molecular sciences, 23 (3). ISSN 1422-0067

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Histamine levels in the human brain are controlled by rather peculiar metabolic pathways. In the first step, histamine is enzymatically methylated at its imidazole Nτ atom, and the produced N- methylhistamine undergoes an oxidative deamination catalyzed by monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), as is common with other monoaminergic neurotransmitters and neuromodulators of the central nervous system. The fact that histamine requires such a conversion prior to oxidative deamination is intriguing since MAO-B is known to be relatively promiscuous towards monoaminergic substrates ; its in-vitro oxidation of N-methylhistamine is about 10 times faster than that for histamine, yet this rather subtle difference appears to be governing the decomposition pathway. This work clarifies the MAO-B selectivity toward histamine and N- methylhistamine by multiscale simulations of the rate-limiting hydride abstraction step for both compounds in the gas phase, in aqueous solution, and in the enzyme, using the established empirical valence bond methodology, assisted by gas-phase density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The computed barriers are in very good agreement with experimental kinetic data, especially for relative trends among systems, thereby reproducing the observed MAO-B selectivity. Simulations clearly demonstrate that solvation effects govern the reactivity, both in aqueous solution as well as in the enzyme although with an opposing effect on the free energy barrier. In the aqueous solution, the transition-state structure involving histamine is better solvated than its methylated analog, leading to a lower barrier for histamine oxidation. In the enzyme, the higher hydrophobicity of N-methylhistamine results in a decreased number of water molecules at the active side, leading to decreased dielectric shielding of the preorganized catalytic electrostatic environment provided by the enzyme. This renders the catalytic environment more efficient for N- methylhistamine, giving rise to a lower barrier relative to histamine. In addition, the transition state involving N-methylhistamine appears to be stabilized by the surrounding nonpolar residues to a larger extent than with unsubstituted histamine, contributing to a lower barrier with the former

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: histamine ; N-methylhistamine ; selectivity ; metabolic pathway ; monoamine oxidase B ; rate constant ; activation free energy ; multiscale molecular simulations ; QM/MM ; empirical valencebond ; DFT calculations
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Chemistry
Divisions: Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
Inovativna rješenja u katalitičkim proizvodnim procesima za potrebe farmaceutske industrije-CAT PHARMASrećko KirinKK.
Depositing User: Robert Vianello
Date Deposited: 25 Mar 2022 08:04
DOI: 10.3390/ijms23031910

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