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Nonaqueous Polyethylene Glycol as a Safer Alternative to Ethanolic Propolis Extracts with Comparable Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity

Šuran, Jelena; Cepanec, Ivica; Mašek, Tomislav; Starčević, Kristina; Tlak Gajger, Ivana; Vranješ, Mihaela; Radić, Božo; Radić, Saša; Kosalec, Ivan; Vlainić, Josipa (2021) Nonaqueous Polyethylene Glycol as a Safer Alternative to Ethanolic Propolis Extracts with Comparable Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity. Antioxidants, 10 (6). ISSN 2076-3921

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Abstract

We compared the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of two propolis extracts: one obtained with nonaqueous polyethylene glycol, PEG 400 (PgEP), and the other obtained with ethanol (EEP). We analyzed the total phenolic content (TPC) and the concentrations of ten markers of propolis antioxidant activity with HPLC-UV: caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, kaempferol, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin, CAPE, and galangin. Antioxidant activity was tested using DPPH and FRAP assay, and antimicrobial activity was assessed through minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) determination. Maceration gave the yield of propolis of 25.2 ± 0.08% in EEP, and 21.5 ± 0.24% in PgEP. All ten markers of antioxidant activity were found in both extracts, with all marker concentrations, except kaempferol, higher in EEP. There was no significant difference between the TPC and antioxidant activity of the PgEP and the EEP extract ; TPC of PgEP was 16.78 ± 0.23 mg/mL, while EEP had TPC of 15.92 ± 0.78 mg/mL. Both extracts had antimicrobial activity against most investigated pathogens and Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli biofilms. EEP was more effective against all tested susceptible pathogens, except E. coli, possibly due to higher content of kaempferol in PgEP relative to other polyphenols. Nonaqueous PEG 400 could be used for propolis extraction. It gives extracts with comparable concentrations of antioxidants and has a good antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It is a safe excipient, convenient for pediatric and veterinary formulations.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: propolis ; extracts ; ethanol ; PEG400 ; antioxidant activity ; antimicrobial activity
Subjects: INTERDISCIPLINARY AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE > Biotechnology in Biomedicine (natural science, biomedicine and healthcare, bioethics area
Divisions: Division of Molecular Medicine
Depositing User: Josipa Vlainić
Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2021 10:40
Last Modified: 06 Aug 2021 12:20
URI: http://fulir.irb.hr/id/eprint/6467
DOI: 10.3390/antiox10060978

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