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Concerted measurements of lipids in seawater and on submicron aerosol particles at the Cape Verde Islands: biogenic sources, selective transfer and high enrichments

Triesch, Nadja; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Frka, Sanja; Stolle, Christian; Spranger, Tobias; Hoffmann, Erik Hans; Gong, Xianda; Wex, Heike; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Gašparović, Blaženka; Herrmann, Hartmut (2021) Concerted measurements of lipids in seawater and on submicron aerosol particles at the Cape Verde Islands: biogenic sources, selective transfer and high enrichments. Atmospheric chemistry and physics, 21 . pp. 4267-4283. ISSN 1680-7316

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Measurements of lipids as representative species for different lipid classes in the marine environment have been performed to characterize their oceanic sources and their transfer from the ocean into the atmosphere to marine aerosol particles. To this end, a set of lipid classes (hydrocarbons (HC), fatty acid methyl esters (ME), free fatty acids (FFA), alcohols (ALC), 1, 3-diacylglycerols (1, 3 DG), 1, 2-diacylglycerols (1, 2 DG), monoacylglycerols (MG), wax esters (WE), triacylglycerols (TG), phospholipids (PP) including phosphatidylglycerols (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholines (PC), glycolipids (GL) including sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG), monogalactosyl-diacylglycerols (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDG) and sterols (ST)) is investigated in both the dissolved and particulate fraction in seawater, differentiated between underlying water (ULW) and the sea surface microlayer (SML), and in ambient submicron aerosol particle samples (PM1) at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) applying concerted measurements. The different lipids are found in all marine compartments but in different compositions. At this point, a certain variability is observed for the concentration of dissolved (∑DLULW: 39.8–128.5 μg L−1, ∑DLSML: 55.7–121.5 μg L−1) and particulate (∑PLULW: 36.4–93.5 μg L−1, ∑PLSML: 61.0–118.1 μg L−1) lipids in seawater of the tropical North Atlantic Ocean along the campaign. Only slight SML enrichments are observed for the lipids with an enrichment factor EFSML of 1.1–1.4 (DL) and 1.0–1.7 (PL). On PM1 aerosol particles, a total lipid concentration between 75.2–219.5 ng m−3 (averaged: 119.9 ng m−3) is measured with high atmospheric concentration of TG (averaged: 21.9 ng m−3) as a potential indicator for freshly emitted sea spray. Besides phytoplankton sources, bacteria influence the lipid concentrations in seawater and on the aerosol particles, so that the phytoplankton tracer (chlorophyll-a) cannot sufficiently explain the lipid abundance. The concentration and enrichment of lipids in the SML is not related to physicochemical properties describing the surface activity. For aerosol, however, the high enrichment of lipids (as a sum) corresponds well with the consideration of their high surface activity, thus the EFaer (enrichment factor on submicron aerosol particles compared to SML) ranges between 9 × 104–7 × 105. Regarding the single lipid groups on the aerosol particles, a weak relation between EFaer and lipophilicity (expressed by the KOW value) was identified, which was absent for the SML. However, overall simple physico- chemical descriptors are not sufficient to fully explain the transfer of lipids. As our findings show that additional processes such as formation and degradation influence the ocean- atmosphere transfer of both OM in general and of lipids in particular, they have to be considered in OM transfer models. Moreover, our data suggest that the extend of enrichment of lipid classes constituents on the aerosol particles might be related to the distribution of the lipid within the bubble-air-water- interface. Lipids, which are preferably arranged within the bubble interface, namely TG and ALC, are transferred to the aerosol particles to the highest extend. Finally, the connection between ice nucleation particles (INP) in seawater, which are active already at higher temperatures (−10 °C to −15 °C), and the lipid classes PE and FFA suggests that lipids formed in the ocean have the potential to contribute to (biogenic) INP activity when transferred to the atmosphere.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Lipids, organic matter; submicron marine aerosol particles (PM1); sea surface microlayer (SML); ice nucleating particles (INP); enrichment factor; concerted measurements; Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO)
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Interdisciplinary Natural Sciences
Divisions: Division for Marine and Enviromental Research
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
Biokemijski odgovori površinskog sloja oligotrofnog područja Jadranskog mora na atmosfersko taloženjeFrka Milosavljević, SanjaIP-2018-01-3105HRZZ
Depositing User: Blaženka Gašparović
Date Deposited: 26 Apr 2021 12:24
DOI: 10.5194/acp-2020-432

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