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Could MicroRNAs Be Useful Tools to Improve the Diagnosis and Treatment of Rare Gynecological Cancers? A Brief Overview

(COST CA18117) Di Fiore, Riccardo; Suleiman, Sherif; Pentimalli, Francesca; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John; Ward, Mark P; Conlon, Neil T.; Sabol, Maja; Ozretić, Petar; Erson-Bensan, Ayse Elif; Reed, Nicholas; Giordano, Antonio; Herrington, C Simon; Calleja-Agius, Jean (2021) Could MicroRNAs Be Useful Tools to Improve the Diagnosis and Treatment of Rare Gynecological Cancers? A Brief Overview. International journal of molecular sciences, 22 (8). ISSN 1422-0067

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Gynecological cancers pose an important public health issue, with a high incidence among women of all ages. Gynecological cancers such as malignant germ-cell tumors, sex-cord-stromal tumors, uterine sarcomas and carcinosarcomas, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, vulvar carcinoma and melanoma of the female genital tract, are defined as rare with an annual incidence of <6 per 100, 000 women. Rare gynecological cancers (RGCs) are associated with poor prognosis, and given the low incidence of each entity, there is the risk of delayed diagnosis due to clinical inexperience and limited therapeutic options. There has been a growing interest in the field of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs of ∼22 nucleotides in length, because of their potential to regulate diverse biological processes. miRNAs usually induce mRNA degradation and translational repression by interacting with the 30 untranslated region (30-UTR) of target mRNAs, as well as other regions and gene promoters, as well as activating translation or regulating transcription under certain conditions. Recent research has revealed the enormous promise of miRNAs for improving the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of all major gynecological cancers. However, to date, only a few studies have been performed on RGCs. In this review, we summarize the data currently available regarding RGCs.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: rare gynecological cancers ; microRNAs ; miRNAs ; cancer stem cells ; circulating biomarkers ; extracellular vesicles ; microRNA-based therapy
Subjects: BIOMEDICINE AND HEALTHCARE > Basic Medical Sciences
Divisions: Division of Molecular Medicine
Depositing User: Petar Ozretić
Date Deposited: 13 Apr 2021 08:15
DOI: 10.3390/ijms22083822

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