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Acute toxicity of selenate and selenite and their impacts on oxidative status, efflux pump activity, cellular and genetic parameters in earthworm Eisenia andrei

Ečimović, Sandra; Velki, Mirna; Vuković, Rosemary; Štolfa Čamagajevac, Ivna; Petek, Anja; Bošnjaković, Rebeka; Grgić, Magdalena; Engelmann, Péter; Bodó, Kornélia; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Ivanković, Dušica; Erk, Marijana; Mijošek, Tatjana; Lončarić, Zdenko (2018) Acute toxicity of selenate and selenite and their impacts on oxidative status, efflux pump activity, cellular and genetic parameters in earthworm Eisenia andrei. Chemosphere, 212 . pp. 307-318. ISSN 0045-6535

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Selenium (Se) is an essential element for humans, animals, and certain lower plants, but can be toxic at high concentration. Even though Se is potentially toxic, little information is available about the effects of Se on soil animals. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of different concentrations of two Se forms, selenate and selenite, on earthworm Eisenia andrei. In order to obtain comprehensive overview on the Se effects, different parameters were measured. Namely, acute toxicity, apoptosis, efflux pump activity, different enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities, lipid peroxidation level and GSH/GSSG ratio) and expression of genes involved in oxidative and immune response have been investigated. Additionally, measurement of metallothioneins concentration and concentration of Se in exposed earthworms has been also performed. The assessment of acute toxicity showed a greater sensitivity of E. andrei to selenite exposure, whereas Se concentration measurements in earthworms showed higher accumulation of selenate form. Both Se forms caused inhibition of the efflux pump activity. Decrease in superoxide dismutase activity and increase in lipid peroxidation and glutathione reductase activity indicate that Se has a significant impact on the oxidative status of earthworms. Selenate exposure caused an apoptotic-like cell death in the coelomocytes of exposed earthworms, whereas decreased mRNA levels of stress-related genes and antimicrobial factors were observed upon the exposure to selenite. The obtained data give insight into the effects of two most common forms of Se in soil on the earthworm E. andrei.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The study was conducted within the project "Selenium biofortification response of plant-soil-earthworms system" funded by Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek. The assessment of gene expression analyses was conducted in support of Return fellowship of Dr. Mirna Velki (Effects of environmental toxicants on expression of oxidative stress related genes in earthworm and wheat) funded by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Authors would like to thank Greta Tolnai for the help with the experimental work regarding the coelomocyte analysis. We acknowledge the financial support of Medical School Research Foundation, University of Pecs (PTE-AOK-KA 2017/04), the Janos Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (PE).
Uncontrolled Keywords: selenium toxicity ; biomarker responses ; gene expression ; metallothioneins ; efflux pump activity ; apoptosis
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Division for Marine and Enviromental Research
Depositing User: Vlatka Filipović Marijić
Date Deposited: 09 Sep 2020 13:19
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.08.095

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