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Aerobic biodegradation of tramadol by pre- adapted activated sludge culture: Cometabolic transformations and bacterial community changes during enrichment

Kostanjevečki, Petra; Petrić, Ines; Lončar, Jovica; Smital, Tvrtko; Ahel, Marijan; Terzić, Senka (2019) Aerobic biodegradation of tramadol by pre- adapted activated sludge culture: Cometabolic transformations and bacterial community changes during enrichment. Science of the Total Environment, 687 . pp. 858-866. ISSN 0048-9697

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The biodegradation of biorecalcitrant opioid drug tramadol (TRAM) was studied in a model biodegradation experiment performed with an enriched activated sludge culture pre-adapted to high concentration of TRAM (20mg/L). TRAMand its transformation products (TPs)were determined by applying ultrahigh- performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS), the sludge culture was characterized using a 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, whereas ecotoxicological evaluation was performed based on determination of toxicity to freshwater algae. Tramadol removal was much faster (t1/2=1.3 days) and more efficient in glucose-containing mineral medium (cometabolic conditions) than in a medium without glucose. The elimination of the parent compound resulted in the formation of five TPs, two of which (TP 249 and TP 235) were identified as N- desmethyltramadol (N-DM TRAM) and N, N- didesmethyltramadol (N, N- diDM TRAM). The remaining 3 TPs (TP 277a-c) were isomeric compounds with an elemental composition of protonated molecules C16H24NO3 and a putative structure which involved oxidativemodification of the dimethylamino group. Pronounced changes in the taxonomic composition of the activated sludge were observed during the enrichment, especially regarding an enhanced percentage of 8 genera (Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Enterobacter, Methylobacillus, Pedobacter, Xanthobacter, Leadbetterella and Kaistia), which might be related to the observed transformations. The removal of TRAMresulted in proportional reduction of algal toxicity, implying a positive result of the accomplished transformation processes.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: We are thankful to the WWTP staff for their cooperation in activated sludge collection. The technical assistance of NenadMuhin is highly appreciated. This research was financially supported by the Croatian Science Foundation (project COMPASS; grant number IP-2014-09-7031).
Uncontrolled Keywords: Tramadol ; Biotransformation ; Taxonomic characterization ; Sludge culture ; Transformation products ; Ecotoxicological assessment
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Chemistry
NATURAL SCIENCES > Interdisciplinary Natural Sciences
Divisions: Division for Marine and Enviromental Research
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
Sveobuhvatna procjena ponašanja i sudbine farmaceutski aktivnih tvari u okolišu: makrolidni antibiotici i opiodni analgetici-COMPASSSenka TerzićIP-2014-09-7031HRZZ
Depositing User: Tvrtko Smital
Date Deposited: 07 May 2020 08:33
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.118

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