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Force-generating mechanisms of anaphase in human cells

Vukušić, Kruno; Buđa, Renata; Tolić, Iva M. (2019) Force-generating mechanisms of anaphase in human cells. Journal of Cell Science, 132 (18). ISSN 0021-9533

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Abstract

What forces drive chromosome segregation remains one of the most challenging questions in cell division. Even though the duration of anaphase is short, it is of utmost importance for genome fidelity that no mistakes are made. Seminal studies in model organisms have revealed different mechanisms operating during chromosome segregation in anaphase, but the translation of these mechanisms to human cells is not straightforward. Recent work has shown that kinetochore fiber depolymerization during anaphase A is largely motor independent, whereas spindle elongation during anaphase B is coupled to sliding of interpolar microtubules in human cells. In this Review, we discuss the current knowledge on the mechanisms of force generation by kinetochore, interpolar and astral microtubules. By combining results from numerous studies, we propose a comprehensive picture of the role of individual force- producing and -regulating proteins. Finally, by linking key concepts of anaphase to most recent data, we summarize the contribution of all proposed mechanisms to chromosome segregation and argue that sliding of interpolar microtubules and depolymerization at the kinetochore are the main drivers of chromosome segregation during early anaphase in human cells.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Anaphase ; Astral microtubules ; Bridging microtubules ; Interpolar microtubules ; Kinetochore microtubules ; Mitosis
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Division of Molecular Biology
Projects:
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
A new class of microtubules in the spindle exerting forces on kinetochores-NewSpindleForceIva TOLIC647077EK
Oscilatorna genomika citoskeleta-OSCITONIva TOLICIP-2014-09-4753HRZZ
Depositing User: Kruno Vukušić
Date Deposited: 06 Dec 2019 16:04
Last Modified: 06 Dec 2019 16:07
URI: http://fulir.irb.hr/id/eprint/5239
DOI: 10.1242/jcs.231985

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