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Helical Twist and Rotational Forces in the Mitotic Spindle

Tolić, Iva M.; Novak, Maja; Pavin, Nenad (2019) Helical Twist and Rotational Forces in the Mitotic Spindle. Biomolecules, 9 (4). ISSN 2218-273X

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Abstract

The mitotic spindle segregates chromosomes into two daughter cells during cell division. This process relies on the precise regulation of forces acting on chromosomes as the cell progresses through mitosis. The forces in the spindle are difficult to directly measure using the available experimental techniques. Here, we review the ideas and recent advances of how forces can be determined from the spindle shape. By using these approaches, it has been shown that tension and compression coexist along a single kinetochore fiber, which are balanced by a bridging fiber between sister kinetochore fibers. An extension of this approach to three dimensions revealed that microtubule bundles have rich shapes, and extend not simply like meridians on the Earth’s surface but, rather, twisted in a helical manner. Such complex shapes are due to rotational forces, which, in addition to linear forces, act in the spindle and may be generated by motor proteins such as kinesin-5. These findings open new questions for future studies, to understand the mechanisms of rotational forces and reveal their biological roles in cells.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: mitotic spindle ; forces ; microtubules ; motor proteins ; rotational forces ; torque
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Physics
NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Division of Molecular Biology
Projects:
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
Oscilatorna genomika citoskeleta-OSCITONIva TOLICIP-2014-09-4753HRZZ
Depositing User: Iva Tolić
Date Deposited: 10 Jun 2019 11:44
Last Modified: 10 Jun 2019 12:12
URI: http://fulir.irb.hr/id/eprint/4532
DOI: 10.3390/biom9040132

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