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Mitotic spindle: Kinetochore fibers hold on tight to interpolar bundles

Tolić, Iva M. (2018) Mitotic spindle: Kinetochore fibers hold on tight to interpolar bundles. European Biophysics Journal, 47 (3). pp. 191-203. ISSN 0175-7571

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When a cell starts to divide, it forms a spindle, a micro- machine made of microtubules, which separates the duplicated chromosomes. The attachment of microtubules to chromosomes is mediated by kinetochores, protein complexes on the chromosome. Spindle microtubules can be divided into three major classes: kinetochore microtubules, which form k-fibers ending at the kinetochore ; interpolar microtubules, which extend from the opposite sides of the spindle and interact in the middle ; and astral microtubules, which extend towards the cell cortex. Recent work in human cells has shown a close relationship between interpolar and kinetochore microtubules, where interpolar bundles are attached laterally to kinetochore fibers almost all along their length, acting as a bridge between sister k-fibers. Most of the interpolar bundles are attached to a pair of sister kinetochore fibers and vice versa. Thus, the spindle is made of modules consisting of a pair of sister kinetochore fibers and a bundle of interpolar microtubules that connects them. These interpolar bundles, termed bridging fibers, balance the forces acting at kinetochores and support the rounded shape of the spindle during metaphase. This review discusses the structure, function, and formation of kinetochore fibers and interpolar bundles, with an emphasis on how they interact. Their connections have an impact on the force balance in the spindle and on chromosome movement during mitosis because the forces in interpolar bundles are transmitted to kinetochore fibers and hence to kinetochores through these connections.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Mitosis ; Kinetochore microtubules ; k-fibers ; Bridging fibers ; Overlap microtubules ; Kinetochore ; Metaphase ; Crosslinkers ; PRC1 ; Motor proteins ; Kinesin
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Physics
Divisions: Division of Molecular Biology
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
A new class of microtubules in the spindle exerting forces on kinetochores-NewSpindleForceIva TOLIC647077EK
Depositing User: Iva Tolić
Date Deposited: 04 Mar 2019 15:56
DOI: 10.1007/s00249-017-1244-4

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