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Functional repertoire of antibiotic resistance genes in antibiotic manufacturing effluents and receiving freshwater sediments

González Plaza, Juan José; Šimatović, Ana; Milaković, Milena; Bielen, Ana; Wichmann, Fabienne; Udiković-Kolić, Nikolina (2018) Functional repertoire of antibiotic resistance genes in antibiotic manufacturing effluents and receiving freshwater sediments. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8 . ISSN 1664-302X

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Environments polluted by direct discharges of effluents from antibiotic manufacturing are important reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which could potentially be transferred to human pathogens. However, our knowledge about the identity and diversity of ARGs in such polluted environments remains limited. We applied functional metagenomics to explore the resistome of two Croatian antibiotic manufacturing effluents and sediments collected upstream of and at the effluent discharge sites. Metagenomic libraries built from an azithromycin-production site were screened for resistance to macrolide antibiotics, whereas the libraries from a site producing veterinary antibiotics were screened for resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines, trimethoprim, and beta-lactams. Functional analysis of eight libraries identified a total of 82 unique, often clinically relevant ARGs, which were frequently found in clusters and flanked by mobile genetic elements. The majority of macrolide resistance genes identified from matrices exposed to high levels of macrolides were similar to known genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins, macrolide phosphotransferases, and transporters. Potentially novel macrolide resistance genes included one most similar to a 23S rRNA methyltransferase from Clostridium and another, derived from upstream unpolluted sediment, to a GTPase HflX from Emergencia. In libraries deriving from sediments exposed to lower levels of veterinary antibiotics, we found 8 potentially novel ARGs, including dihydrofolate reductases and beta-lactamases from classes A, B, and D. In addition, we detected 7 potentially novel ARGs in upstream sediment, including thymidylate synthases, dihydrofolate reductases, and class D beta- lactamase. Taken together, in addition to finding known gene types, we report the discovery of novel and diverse ARGs in antibiotic-polluted industrial effluents and sediments, providing a qualitative basis for monitoring the dispersal of ARGs from environmental hotspots such as discharge sites of pharmaceutical effluents.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: antibiotic resistance ; effluent ; manufacturing ; antibiotic pollution ; sediment ; macrolides ; functional metagenomics
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology > Microbiology
NATURAL SCIENCES > Interdisciplinary Natural Sciences
NATURAL SCIENCES > Interdisciplinary Natural Sciences > Environmental Science
Divisions: Division for Marine and Enviromental Research
Division of Molecular Biology
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
Istraživanje utjecaja otpadnih voda iz farmaceutskih industrija na sastav i profil antibiotičke rezistencije izloženih mirkobnih zajednica u slatkovodnim sedimentima-WINARNikolina Udiković KolićUIP-2014-09-9350HRZZ
Depositing User: Milena Milaković Obradović
Date Deposited: 29 Oct 2018 15:17
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02675

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