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The 2010 very high energy gamma-ray flare and 10 years of multi-wavelength observations of M 87

(MAGIC Collaboration) Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; de Almeida, U. Barres; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernloehr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Buesching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Atai, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Foerster, A.; Fuessling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gerard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glueck, B.; Goret, P.; Goering, D.; Haeffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzynski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khelifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C. -C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Mehault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Wilhelmi, E. de Ona; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P. -O.; Pita, S.; Puehlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schoeck, F. M.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J. -P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Voelk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H. -S.; Aleksic, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Tridon, D. Borla; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Canellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Dominguez, A.; Prester, D. Dominis; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Garcia Lopez, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinovic, N.; Hadasch, D.; Haefner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hoehne-Moench, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Kraehenbuehl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Lopez, M.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martinez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldon, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Moroni, P. G. Prada; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribo, M.; Rico, J.; Ruegamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpaa, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzic, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thom, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Arlen, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Hui, C. M.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nunez, P. D.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Sentuerk, G. D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tesic, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; de Almeida, U. Barres; Cara, M.; Casadio, C.; Cheung, C. C.; McConville, W.; Davies, F.; Doi, A.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Hada, K.; Hardee, P.; Harris, D. E.; Junor, W.; Kino, M.; Lee, N. P.; Ly, C.; Madrid, J.; Massaro, F.; Mundell, C. G.; Nagai, H.; Perlman, E. S.; Steele, I. A.; Walker, R. C.; Wood, D. L.; (2012) The 2010 very high energy gamma-ray flare and 10 years of multi-wavelength observations of M 87. The Astrophysical Journal, 746 (151). pp. 1-19. ISSN 0004-637X

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Abstract

The giant radio galaxy M 87 with its proximity (16 Mpc), famous jet, and very massive black hole ((3 − 6) x 10^9 Sun mass) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of very high energy (VHE ; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emission generated in relativistic outflows and the surroundings of super-massive black holes. M 87 has been established as a VHE gamma-ray emitter since 2006. The VHE gamma-ray emission displays strong variability on time-scales as short as a day. In this paper, results from a joint VHE monitoring campaign on M 87 by the MAGIC and VERITAS instruments in 2010 are reported. During the campaign, a flare at VHE was detected triggering further observations at VHE (H.E.S.S.), X-rays (Chandra), and radio (43 GHz VLBA). The excellent sampling of the VHE gamma-ray light curve enables one to derive a precise temporal characterization of the flare: the single, isolated flare is well described by a two-sided exponential function with significantly different flux rise and decay times of τ_rise = (1.69 ± 0.30) days and τ_decay = (0.611 ± 0.080) days, respectively. While the overall variability pattern of the 2010 flare appears somewhat different from that of previous VHE flares in 2005 and 2008, they share very similar time-scales (∼day), peak fluxes (>0.35 TeV (1 − 3) x 10^−11 ph cm^−2 s^−1), and VHE spectra. 43 GHz VLBA radio observations of the inner jet regions indicate no enhanced flux in 2010 in contrast to observations in 2008, where an increase of the radio flux of the innermost core regions coincided with a VHE flare. On the other hand, Chandra X-ray observations taken ∼ 3 days after the peak of the VHE gamma-ray emission reveal an enhanced flux from the core (flux increased by factor ∼ 2 ; variability time-scale < 2 days). The long-term (2001-2010) multi-wavelength (MWL) light curve of M 87, spanning from radio to VHE and including data from HST, LT, VLA and EVN, is used to further investigate the origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission. No unique, common MWL signature of the three VHE flares has been identified. In the outer kpc jet region, in particular in HST-1, no enhanced MWL activity was detected in 2008 and 2010, disfavoring it as the origin of the VHE flares during these years. Shortly after two of the three flares (2008 and 2010), the X-ray core was observed to be at a higher flux level than its characteristic range (determined from more than 60 monitoring observations: 2002-2009). In 2005, the strong flux dominance of HST-1 could have suppressed the detection of such a feature. Published models for VHE gamma-ray emission from M 87 are reviewed in the light of the new data.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: galaxies: active; galaxies: individual (M 87); gamma rays: observations, galaxies: jets; radiation mechanisms: non-thermal
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Physics
NATURAL SCIENCES > Physics > Astronomy and Astrophysics
Divisions: Division of Experimental Physics
Projects:
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
Foton-atom međudjelovanje i korelacije[118624] Tihomir Surić098-0982931-2875MZOS
UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED02.01/12MZOS
Depositing User: Dario Hrupec
Date Deposited: 16 Jan 2015 17:00
Last Modified: 23 Jan 2017 09:01
URI: http://fulir.irb.hr/id/eprint/1655
DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/151

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