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Electrochemical Determination of Morphine in Urine Samples by Tailoring FeWO4/CPE Sensor

Ognjanović, Miloš; Nikolić, Katarina; Bošković, Marko; Pastor, Ferenc; Popov, Nina; Marciuš, Marijan; Krehula, Stjepko; Antić, Bratislav; Stanković, Dalibor M. (2022) Electrochemical Determination of Morphine in Urine Samples by Tailoring FeWO4/CPE Sensor. Biosensors, 12 . ISSN 2079-6374

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Morphine (MORPH) is natural alkaloid and mainly used as a pain reliever. Its monitoring in human body fluids is crucial for modern medicine. In this paper, we have developed an electrochemical sensor for submicromolar detection of MORPH. The sensor is based on modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) by investigating the FexW1-xO4 ratio in iron tungstate (FeWO4), as well as the ratio of this material in CPE. For the first time, the effect of the iron–tungsten ratio in terms of achieving the best possible electrochemical characteristics for the detection of an important molecule for humans was examined. Morphological and electrochemical characteristics of materials were studied. The best results were obtained using Fe1W3 and 7.5% of modifier in CPE. For MORPH detection, square wave voltammetry (SWV) was optimized. Under the optimized conditions, Fe1W3@CPE resulted in limit of detection (LOD) of the method of 0.58 µM and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.94 µM. The linear operating range between 5 and 85 µM of MORPH in the Britton–Robinson buffer solution (BRBS) at pH 8 as supporting electrolyte was obtained. The Fe1W3@CPE sensor resulted in good selectivity and excellent repeatability with relative standard deviation (RSD) and was applied in real-world samples of human urine. Application for direct MORPH detection, without tedious sample pretreatment procedures, suggests that developed electrochemical sensor has appeared to be a suitable competitor for efficient, precise, and accurate monitoring of the MORPH in biological fluids.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: iron tungstate ; carbon paste electrode ; electroanalysis ; square wave voltammetry ; morphine ; real-world sample
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Chemistry
Divisions: Division of Materials Chemistry
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
Kompoziti nanočestica miješanih oksida i hidroksida željeza i prijelaznih metala i ugljikovih nanomaterijala za fotokatalitičke i elektrokatalitičke primjeneKrehula, StjepkoUNSPECIFIEDMZO
Depositing User: Stjepko Krehula
Date Deposited: 03 Apr 2023 11:34
DOI: 10.3390/bios12110932

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