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The role of nucleoprotein in immunity to human negative-stranded RNA viruses - not just another brick in the viral nucleocapsid

Šantak, Maja; Matić, Zrinka (2022) The role of nucleoprotein in immunity to human negative-stranded RNA viruses - not just another brick in the viral nucleocapsid. Viruses, 14 (3). ISSN 1999-4915

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Negative-stranded RNA viruses (NSVs) are important human pathogens, including emerging and reemerging viruses that cause respiratory, hemorrhagic and other severe illnesses. Vaccine design traditionally relies on the viral surface glycoproteins. However, surface glycoproteins rarely elicit effective long-term immunity due to high variability. Therefore, an alternative approach is to include conserved structural proteins such as nucleoprotein (NP). NP is engaged in myriad processes in the viral life cycle: coating and protection of viral RNA, regulation of transcription/replication processes and induction of immunosuppression of the host. A broad heterosubtypic T-cellular protection was ascribed very early to this protein. In contrast, the understanding of the humoral immunity to NP is very limited in spite of the high titer of non-neutralizing NP-specific antibodies raised upon natural infection or immunization. In this review, the data with important implications for the understanding of the role of NP in the immune response to human NSVs are revisited. Major implications of the elicited T-cell immune responses to NP are evaluated, and the possible multiple mechanisms of the neglected humoral response to NP are discussed. The intention of this review is to remind that NP is a very promising target for the development of future vaccines.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: negative-stranded RNA viruses ; nucleoprotein ; T-cell immune response ; B-cell immune response ; vaccines
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Chemistry
Divisions: Division of Physical Chemistry
Project titleProject leaderProject codeProject type
Robusne i adaptabilne biološke platforme za nova cjepivaKazazić, SašaKK.
Depositing User: Martina Žugaj
Date Deposited: 24 Jun 2022 08:20
DOI: 10.3390/v14030521

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