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Oxidative Stress and Lipid Mediators Modulate Immune Cell Functions in Autoimmune Diseases

Wójcik, Piotr; Gęgotek, Agnieszka; Žarković, Neven; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta (2021) Oxidative Stress and Lipid Mediators Modulate Immune Cell Functions in Autoimmune Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22 (2). ISSN 1422-0067

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Autoimmune diseases, including psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and rheumatic arthritis (RA), are caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors that lead to overactivation of immune cells and chronic inflammation. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of these diseases, which activates leukocytes to intensify inflammation, antioxidants could reduce the severity of these diseases. In addition to activating leukocytes, oxidative stress increases the production of lipid mediators, notably of endocannabinoids and eicosanoids, which are products of enzymatic lipid metabolism that act through specific receptors. Because the anti-inflammatory CB2 receptors are the predominant cannabinoid receptors in leukocytes, endocannabinoids are believed to act as anti-inflammatory factors that regulate compensatory mechanisms in autoimmune diseases. While administration of eicosanoids in vitro leads to the differentiation of lymphocytes into T helper 2 (Th2) cells, eicosanoids are also necessary for the different0iation of Th1 and Th17 cells. Therefore, their antagonists and/or the genetic deletion of their receptors abolish inflammation in animal models of psoriasis—RA and SLE. On the other hand, products of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation, especially acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, mostly generated by an oxidative burst of granulocytes, may enhance inflammation and even acting as autoantigens and extracellular signaling molecules in the vicious circle of autoimmune diseases.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: lipid mediators ; endocannabinoids ; ROS ; prostaglandins ; oxidative stress ; immunity ; rheumatoid arthritis ; psoriasis ; psoriatic arthritis ; systemic lupus erythematosus
Subjects: INTERDISCIPLINARY AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE > Integrative Bioethics (Natural, Technical, Biomedical and Healthcare, Social and Humanistic Sciences)
Divisions: Division of Molecular Medicine
Depositing User: Lovorka Čaja
Date Deposited: 29 Mar 2022 13:03
DOI: 10.3390/ijms22020723

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